Threats Online


Doxxing is a low-level tactic commonly used by malicious actors online to acquire and expose the personal information of public figures. This tactic is used by many different types of people on the internet, including cybercriminals, hacktivists, trolls and hacking groups. Doxxing is now a normal tactic used to target journalists. This information is commonly available through a mix of public records, social media accounts and publications. The publishing of private information can lead to physical security threats.

Social Engineering

Social Engineering is a tactic where the attacker poses as a trusted individual in order to gain access to sensitive information. Attackers use information that is easily found online through social media, search engines and public record to build a believable pre-text for their attack. They execute this type of attack via the phone, through a phishing email or message, or in-person. Limiting your personal information online can curb these types of targeted attacks.

Search Engines

Search engines are usually the starting point for criminals looking to target people online. Search engines are used as initial recon to gather basic info about an individual. Data found is often used as pivot points to find other data.

Checking for your personal information on a search engine also gives a good overview of the data that is the quickest and easiest to find about yourself. We recommend leveraging search operators to give you specific results. We’ve outlined the ones we find most useful below.

Google & Bing Search Operators
Operator What it searches Example
Site Provides results of pages located on a specific domain
AND/OR Use the AND operator to return results containing two results. Use the OR operator to return results that contain one result or the other result. John Smith” AND (Portland OR Salem)
Asterisk Google treats the asterisk as a placeholder for a word or words in a search string. John * Smith”
Hyphen This operator allows you to exclude the text immediately following it. John Smith”
Filetype Filter search results by a single file type extension Common File Types: filetype:xls



  • TXT

  • JPG/JPEG/PNG (Image files)

  • PDF

Bing Search Operators
Operator What it searches Example
LinkFromDomain Creates results that link to every website within a website.
Contains Allows you to filter search results by a single file type extension on a specific website. Contains:csv

Google Alerts

Google Alerts are a great way to keep tabs on new information that is indexed by Google. Google search operators can be used in Google Alerts for more specific alerts on your data.

Once you’re signed into your Google account, you can set up Google Alerts here:

Public Records and Data Brokers

After searching for your information on a search engine, you will likely find results pointing to a website run by a data broker. These sites use public records to aggregate information about you. This often includes current and previous addresses, phone numbers, names of family members, or previous names (If you’ve changed your name). See if you can find profiles of yourself on these sites and consider taking steps to opt out.

Below is a list of sites that aggregate personal data from various sources. Many of these sites offer that data for sale, and some provide it for free. The New York Times Information Security team has vetted the sites below, meaning that we are comfortable recommending you to engage with them to remove your data, and we are confident that they will remove your data.

Tips for Opting Out

Please note that some of these sites will request you provide some personal data to opt out, such as email address, phone number, and address. Here are some tips for engaging with them:
  • Only provide a site with the data they already have about you. If you see that they have an old home address, do not provide them with a current address, just provide them with the address they already have listed.

  • We recommend providing a less-frequently used email address. Setting up a burner email or opting out is a great way to ensure your email won’t receive a bunch of spam.

  • If you are concerned about providing your phone number, consider setting up a Google Voice or other voice over IP (VoIP) account.

Data Broker Sites and Opt-out List
Site name Website Opt out link Notes
Voter Records Look at the How can I remove my information from” section.
Radaris You are required to create an account when removing data from Radaris.
Fast People Search
Neighbor Report
White Pages
Family Tree Now
Instant Checkmate
Been Verified
People Search Now
People Looker
Advanced Background Check
Anywho Access profile and click remove listing”
Cubib Once you select your profile, select Opt out” on the right of the profile.

This part of the process is the most time consuming. We recommend breaking the delisting process out into more manageable chunks and setup a schedule to remove your information.

Your data may show up again. These sites are pulling data from public records and open source, so if you move, get married, or make another life change, it’s possible your data may repopulate on these sites. We recommend reviewing your information once a year and removing any new records that may have appeared.

Social Media

Social media accounts allow malicious actors to gather specifics on things like your relationships, hobbies, or travels. Social media accounts don’t often consider how transparency on their platforms can lead to targeted attacks, so we have developed some guidance on locking down the most commonly used platforms below.

Identify your Social Media Accounts

Enter your commonly used handles into to see where that handle is being used. This can help you discover old accounts you may have set up, as well as keep an eye for impersonation accounts

Searching on Facebook

Until recently, Facebook allowed users to search for things such as public posts and photos that a specific user had been tagged in. This information is still public but now more difficult to locate. Your privacy on Facebook depends on how private your friends and family are.

Facebook’s internal search provides a limited set of options when it comes to searching accounts. To get an accurate view of what is public, partner with someone who is not friends with you on Facebook.

Tip | You must have a Facebook account and be logged in to search for other Facebook users.

Searching on Twitter

Twitter simple search:

Twitter advanced search:

Twitter Search Operators
from Messages username is sending out from:username
to Messages being sent to username from:username to:username
geocode Tweets occurring within range of specific GPS coordinates geocode:40.753830318,-73.987329384,1km search term here”
AND/OR Use the AND operator to return results containing two results. Use the OR operator to return results that contain one result or the other result. from:username OR from:username
since:YYYY-MM-DD until:YYYY-MM-DD Tweets occurring within a specific date range From:username since:2005-01-01 until:2005-01-31

Searching on Instagram

Instagram recently made it more difficult to locate information about users who have private accounts. The in app search field only shows users and hashtags related to search terms.

Searching on LinkedIn

Tip | If you are searching for others while logged into your profile, they will be able to see that you viewed their profile with the default settings. Me > Settings & Privacy > Privacy > Profile viewing options

LinkedIn’s built in search features can be difficult to customize and provides results based on your interactions and connections. We recommend leveraging a search engine using custom search operators for a better understanding of the publicly available information on LinkedIn.

Search engine operators examples for LinkedIn

  • Your place of employment”

  • Your LinkedIn headline”

Securing your accounts

Visit our Social Media Security & Privacy Guide for a list of recommended settings to lockdown personal information on your social media accounts.

Additional Resources

Check to see if you email or username has been associated with a data breach at

To search the Internet Archive for personal information use

IntelTechniques Data Removal Handbook:

February 9, 2024